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Kids Music 'n' Kids Coins, a GREAT combination!

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                   Early Intervention Initiative

Information and Research

                                                 

                                Token Economy:

•  Token economy system is a system in which tokens are earned for positive behavior. 

The tokens are then exchanged for desired rewards. Token economy systems are based on behaviorist principles of learning.

The idea that learning can be stimulated through the use of rewards goes back as far as the education practices of the ancient Greeks.

                                 Effectiveness:

•  Token economy systems are often effective for children who do not respond to other less-structured methods of behavior modification (providing positive feedback or praise)

•  Today, token economies are an accepted, widespread and effective all-purpose treatment in which the control of aggressive behavior has beendemonstrated.

•  Research indicates that some children benefit more than others from token economies. Children with severe behavior problems, children who have failed often, and special needs children all seem to respond to the concrete, direct nature of token reinforcement.

  

                               Use of Rewards:

•  Consistent use of reinforcement, or rewards for appropriate behavior gives  a  clear  message  about which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. Using Kids Coins for structure can help parents and caregivers be more consistent in their reinforcement of positive behaviors.                                                 

•  Research suggests that tangible rewards, particularly those that are given immediately after the child "behaves well", can be distracting and take the focus off of the task at hand.»Delayed, non-tangible rewards (special activity at the end of the week) may therefore be preferable.  A token economy system that uses Kids Coins allows flexibility in the type of reward used and the time at which the reward is given.  

•   In order for a token economy system to be effective, the rewards must be truly reinforcing for each child. »Using Kids Coins allows parents and caregivers to tailor the reward so that it best meets the needs of the child. Children can also play a role in deciding what reward they would like to work toward.

•  When beginning a token economy system, it is important for tokens to be given out regularly with frequent opportunities to exchange tokens for rewards  If, after a positive behavior pattern is established, parents or caregivers want to de-emphasize the reward or wish to phase-it-out, tokens can be saved for longer periods of time before they are exchanged for rewards.  

Use of Visual Cues:

•  Research indicates that children are more likely to behave appropriately when they are given reminders or "cues' that certain behaviors are expected of them. » Using "I Can Do It" Coins can provide a visual reminder for children about what they should be doing.

Encouraging Self-Management of Behavior:

•  There  has  been  an  increasing  interest  among  researchers  in  systems  designed to develop children’s ability to regulate or manage  their own behavior.»  One way to encourage self-management is by allowing children to evaluate whether or not they have behaved appropriately and to administer their own rewards.

   

•  Token economy systems can be adapted in a way to encourage self-management of behavior.  For example, with Kids Coins, children can select which behaviors/activities they will complete during the day.  Upon successful completion, they can decide whether they’ve earned their coin for the task.  At the end of the day, children can reflect on their behavior (with the guidance of an adult) and determine how “Goldie” was earned.

•  Young children respond well to concrete rewards. Parents should require children to earn three to five tokens before earning the BIG reward. A visual aid such as a chart with pictures of desired behaviors and rewards will help young children to better understand and remember the desired behaviors and potential rewards.


Emotional Rewards/Encouragement

•  Encouragement in the form of tangible and socio emotional rewards, strengthens creative motivational orientation. The Kids Coins I'm Feeling Coins provides adults with tangible tools that motivate creativity in children by offering emotional support. Children's mental health is an important part of their well-being. The best way to promote their mental health is to build up their strengths and give them tools to succeed in life. Help them to relate to others and build their confidence. Give them a chance to talk about their emotions and feelings and give encouragement and praise providing unconditional love and support.

Music and Token Rewards

•  Teachers, therapists and counselors should always keep the following in mind when developing behavioral plans: Students should be engaged in useful activities which are of interest to them and their ability level.

The Kids Coins Song Collection uses age-appropriate inspirational music targeted to help motivate positive behavior in young children.

Behavior Management Strategies

Behavior Management Strategies

• There are 6 basic steps in the constructions of a behavioral modification program for use in the classroom: "Specify observed behavior", "Measure behavior", "Set goals", "Arrange cues", "Reinforce" and "Evaluate success". »  Kids Coins provide a means to measure  the success of children with all 6 basic steps in place.

Reinforcement

• The most single most important factor in maintaining a child's self-esteem is the presence of an adult who demonstrates respect and acceptance and who provides support that conveys the message "I believe in you". »  Kids Coins can be instrumental in providing adults with a means to present a distinguished message of self- worth to young children.    www.aap.org  »  American Academy of Pediatrics-Components of High Self-Esteem

Early Learning

•  Children's early experiences largely determine the way they will learn, think and behave for the rest of their lives. Kids Coins help to provide positive early learning experiences that prepare children for their futures.

    »"I Am Your Child" 1997 Parents Action for Children www.parentsaction.org

Discipline and Behavior

•  As children get older, the need to set limits and discipline them at times and keep them on a daily routine is important. It is better to reward and praise good behavior to reinforce it, rather then having to change bad behaviors. »

•  With regular praise, positive behavior is reinforced, reducing the need to discipline.

•  Kids Coins facilitates parent-child conversations on the topics of adhering to a schedule and following directions while keeping the emphasis on encouragement for positive behaviors/tasks, rather than on punishment for negative behaviors.

    »Kimberly Blaker,  

   Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child?     www.mothering.com

     Disciplining Your Toddler     www.keepkidshealthy.com 

Summary

•  Children learn by doing, experiencing, and interacting with the people, and objects in their environment.    

• Kids Coins have been proven to support the growth of children with interactive tools that create and interactive learning environment.

•  Participating in family chores can strengthen a child's sense of belonging and contributing to the common good. » Kids Coins help children to share in the importance of family dynamics and activities, leading to positive self-worth.

 

              Kindergarten Readiness/facts-information

       View The Kids Coins Early Intervention Initiative

•  Kids Coins is a Preventative Initiative designed with children's cognitive, emotional, and social development in mind. In many ways, the system could be considered a Kindergarten Readiness Program, preparing children so that they are ready to meet teacher expectations

•  One-third of American children enter kindergarten unprepared to benefit from classroom instruction.
E.L. Boyer Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

"R.E.A.D.Y To Learn: A Mandate For The Nation"

www.carnegiefoundation.org

•  Is My Child Ready for Kindergarten?

Center for Early Education and Development Un of Minnesota

http://education.umn.edu/ceed

•  More than 13 million children in the U.S. under age six, including children whose mothers do not work outside the home, are cared for daily by someone other than their parents.

Early Care Education Partnerships State and Local Lessons

The Partnership Impact Early Care Research Project   www.ccf.edc.org

Diane Schilder, Ellen Kiron and Kimberly Elliot, Center For Children and Families

   » Skinner, B. F.  (1953).  Science and human behavior.  New York: Macmillan.

         Kathleen Cotton Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory

   »  Maheady, Rosenberg, Wilson & Sindelar, 1997 Token Economy

improved prosocial behaviors.

     »  Woolfolk, A.  (2001).  Educational Psychology (8th ed.).  Needham Heights, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.

   »   Martin, G. & Pear, J.  (1992).  Behavior modification: 

What it is and how to do it (4th ed.).  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.

   »  Ormrod, J.  (2003). Educational psychology: Developing learners (4th ed.).  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall. 

   »  Kelley, M., & Carper, L.  (1988).  Home-based reinforcement procedures. 

In J.C. Will, S.M. Elliott, & F.M Gresham (Eds.), Handbook of behavior therapy

in education.  New York:   Plenum Press.

   »  Pfiffner, L., Rosen, L., & O’Leary, S.  (1985).  The efficacy of an all-positive approach toclassroom management.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,

18, 257-261.

   » Martin, G. & Pear, J.  (1992).  Behavior modification: 

What it is and how to do it (4th ed.).  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.

    »  Taylor, B., & Levin, L.  (1998).  Teaching a student with autism

to make verbal initiations:  Effects of a tactile prompt. 

Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 651-654.

   »  Ferretti, R., Cavalier, A., Murphy, M., & Murphy, R.  (1993). 

The self-management of skills bypersons with mental retardation. 

Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14,  189-205.

   »  Cavalier, A., Ferretti, R., & Hodges, A.  (1997).  Self-management

within a classroom:  Token economy for students with learning disabilities. 

Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178

     » Robert Eisenberger,  Un. Of  Delaware, and Linda Shandock, Un. Of Albany        

Effective Behavior Management part III Consequences of Children's Behavior-Reinforcement Consequences/Tokens

 Rewards, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

Kelly B. Cartwright, Ph.D     www.selfhelpmagazine.com

     »Rewards, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity by Robert Eisenberger,

Un. Of Delaware, and Linda Shandock, Un. Of Albany

      »The National Mental Health Association www.nmha.org

   »The Effects of Music Therapy and Token Economy System  www.fsu.edu

      >> Claudine Boussicant Florida State University School of Music

    »The Science of Early Childhood Development Eager To Learn:

     Educating Our Preschoolers Selected Reports

     Child Development, Learning and Education How People Learn:

     Brain, Mind, Experience and School

    The National Academies Press www.nap.edu

  Information

How Can I Teach My Child Responsibility?

Center for Early Education and Development University of Minnesota

http://education.umn.edu/ceed.

At Risk of Failure 

At risk of future "failure" is a common phrase used to describe students who face difficulties known to interfere with their educational success.   It doesn't mean that the student WILL fail, only that the student may face challenges that other students do not.  Under the new federal "No Child Left Behind" legislation, schools across the country are being told that they have to do a better job of helping "at risk" children  succeed.

A child can be "at risk" for any number of reasons including giftedness, disabilities, poverty, divorce, teenage parents, abuse, neglect, etc..

       

Schools are being told that students come to them with many challenges and it is up to them to work together with parents and communities to try to help their students overcome those challenges and achieve educational success.

     

           Youth At-Risk from a Bad Start:  Facts We Know:

      

Over 1,000,000 of the 3,092,000 children reported

for child abuse and neglect are verified in the U.S.

each year, and one can only guess how many go

unreported or are true but unverified. 

      

       13,500,000 children live in poverty- about one in five (18.9%)

       512,000 babies are born to teen mothers each year

       2,100,000 children are arrested each year

       1,600,000 U.S. children have a imprisoned father and

          200,000 U.S. children have an imprisoned mother

In 1999, 26% of 12th graders, 22% of 10th graders, and 12% of

8th graders had used illicit drugs in the previous 30 days.

      

Every 5 hours in the U.S. another youth commits suicide.

      

All the children included in the above statistics (and more categories not listed) come to school carrying their burdens and issues with them.  It is safe to assume that many of the children represented are at-risk of having decreased horizons of success. Our schools have become the focus of efforts to address at-risk issues.  Schools admit they are inadequately informed and prepared for this immense task, but many of them are making the noble effort. 

                                          

National At-Risk Education Network, 107 1/2 State Street-Suite 5, Madison, WI 5370

    www.atriskeducation.net